ACROMEGALY COMBINED WITH GIGANTISM ASSOCIATED WITH THE AIP-GENE MUTATION: A CLINICAL CASE
Keywords:Аcromegaly, gigantism, pituitary adenoma, AIP- gene mutation.
Pituitary gigantism is an extremely rare disorder: the incidence of pituitary tumors in children is approximately 0.1 in one million, and only about 1 to 10% of the pituitary tumors secrete the GH in childhood. Gigantism should be suspected if the patient's height is 3 standard deviations above the normal average height or 2 standard deviations above the corrected height of parents. When pituitary gigantism is suspected, the clinician should consider the presence of disorders, known to be associated with the GH-secreting pituitary tumors, including the McCune Albright syndrome (MAS), Carney complex (CNC), multiple endocrine neoplasia, types 1 and 4 (MEN 1, MEN 4), Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA), the paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma and pituitary adenoma association (PAA) due to succinate dehydrogenase defects, and X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG). The molecular genetics of the AIP-associated FIPA, MAS, CNC, and MEN 1 has been extensively studied and reviewed, especially in children and young adults. The GH-secreting adenomas seem to be more invasive and aggressive in childhood than in adulthood. Data on a rare disease — gigantism combined with phenotypic signs of acromegaly in a young patient are presented. Clinical and laboratory parameters, data of histological and genetic analysis are described. Genetic analysis performed by AIP gene by Sequencing, proved a rare mutation in the locus of exons 1-6 of the AIP gene. The presented clinical case describes a rare fact of the AIP-gene mutation in the p.Cys238Tyr locus, which is associated with the occurrence of a giant pituitary adenoma in childhood. Aggressive growths of the pituitary tumor, its high proliferative and hormonal activity, clinical manifestations of gigantism in combination with severe phenotypic signs of acromegaly have also been noticed. Resistance to the therapy with somatostatin analogs has been revealed in this case. Considering the absence of genetic predisposition to a pituitary adenoma in the patient, this case can be regarded as a sporadic pituitary adenoma variant due to the abnormal AIP-gene expression and the disturbance of regulation during tumorigenesis.
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