Influence of gastrointestinal hormones on the development of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children
Keywords:gastrointestinal hormones, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children
Obesity is becoming a global epidemic among children, and the social significance of this problem is determined by the threat of disability of young patients, reducing life expectancy and the development of severe comorbidities. As a result of the increasing number of studies on energy homeostasis, it has been suggested that obesity is a multifactorial and more complex disease than previously thought. In recent years, the attention of researchers is increasingly attracted to the study of intestinal microbiota and its impact on human health, due to the development of new technologies and methods of studying the microbiome. Recent studies have shown that there is a mutual influence of the brain and intestines on each other, and there is increasing evidence that confirms the role of this complex relationship in the regulation of hunger, satiation and energy balance. It is proved that there is a direct impact on these processes of intestinal microbiota, and mediated through its intervention in the synthesis and metabolism of hormones and biologically active compounds of the digestive system. Today it is known that the gastrointestinal tract is one of the human organs where the most hormones are synthesized. At the present stage of development of science, it is known that there are more than 30 gastrointestinal hormones and biologically active substances that regulate the processes of digestion and participate in the regulation of general homeostasis. The most important role in the development of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease belongs to hormones such as ghrelin, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide 1. The literature review presents current data that demonstrate the role of gastrointestinal hormones in the formation and development of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children as well as data of own research.
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