METABOLIC DISEASES AND NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE — FEATURES OF THE COMPOSITION OF GUT MICROBIOTA
Keywords:metabolic diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gut microbiota, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes
The study included 120 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), among them there were 59 men (49,2%) and 61 women (50,8%)) aged 47 [28; 65] years. All patients with NAFLD had one or more related metabolic diseases (MD): the obesity (OB) n = 67, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) n = 20, hypertensive heart disease (HHD) n = 33. It should be noted that almost 70% of patients with NAFLD had insulin resistance (IR). The control group consisted of 20 apparently healthy people: 8 men (40%) and 12 women (60%), at the age of 43 [23;60] years. Both groups were comparable in terms of gender and age. The study of the gut microbiota (GM) composition at the level of the main phylotypes was carried out by identifying the total bacterial DNA and Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria DNA, as well as the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio by the method of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction using universal primers for the 16S rRNA gene and taxonspecific primers. We have shown that the state of GM in patients with NAFLD on the background of MD significantly changes with a comorbid course. All examined patients with NAFLD revealed a significant increase in the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes in comparison with the control group of 3.41 [1.48; 7.82]; 0.64 [0.52; 1.47]. The most significant disturbances in the state of GM were found in patients with the comorbid course of NAFLD + OB + IR 5.27 [3.89; 11.69], with comorbid NAFLD + IR, this ratio had a gentle decrease of 4.23 [2.59; 9.81]; while with comorbid NAFLD + OB + T2D, NAFLD + OB + HHD and NAFLD + HHD + T2D, the relative ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes was slightly lower and amounted to 3.08 [1.87; 7.49]; 2.7 [1.34; 6.27] and 2.3 [1.05; 7.32] respectively. At the same time, the relative amount of Actinobacteria showed almost no differences in either group and in the control group. The statistical analysis did not record a significant difference in the studied indicators depending on gender.
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